Istanbul is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Istanbul’s place in the history scene is also quite large. The history of Istanbul goes back thousands of years, but the first known settlement dates back to BC. It dates back to the Megara Kingdom in the 7th century. Istanbul, which was the capital of the Byzantine Empire at that time, was conquered by the Ottoman Army on May 29, 1453, under the command of Fatih Sultan Mehmet. Istanbul has been the capital of this world-wide empire from its conquest to the withdrawal of the Ottoman Empire from the stage of history.
The capital of the empire had its heyday in the 16th and 17th centuries. In these centuries, the city not only spread out, but also saw a great deal of reconstruction. After the conquest, the silhouette of the city with minarets and domes began to form, and thus Istanbul began to take on an Islamic identity. With a population of 800 thousand at the end of the 17th century, Istanbul left cities such as London and Paris in the dust and became the largest city and center of the Middle East and Europe. The city, which took the name “Tulip Age Istanbul” in the 18th century, is the period when Istanbul opened to the West in particular. With the architectural structure of the city, it created a new formation in the life of the people. So much that during this period, cultural relations formed syntheses in their most beautiful form and made Istanbul the center in art, music and literature. As such, the city has been a source of inspiration for many artists. The 19th century was also a period in which great transformations were experienced in Istanbul with the development and spread of economic and industrial revolution in the world. The transportation infrastructure of the city also developed; railways, docks, stations were built. Meanwhile, in 19th century the city suffered great damage from the fires, these created an opportunity for the reconstruction and transformation of the city. When it came to the last period of the Ottoman state, until the collapse of the state in the First World War in 1918, the city lost its capital character and its population began to decline.
Istanbul continues to be known as Constantinople or Konstantiniyye, which was its first name after the conquest.
The Republic of Türkiye officially changed the name of Constantinople or Konstantiniyye to Istanbul in 1929.
Istanbul’s geopolitical location is of great importance because it connects two continents (Asia-Europe). The Bosphorus, which connects the Black Sea to the warm seas, has also caused great wars in many pages of history.